All the Types of Edible Mushrooms Explained With Pictures

Types of edible mushrooms
Mushrooms are extremely popular eatables and are used profusely in cuisines the world over. Here's a look at different types of edible mushrooms that are used widely today.
Five things to be kept in mind before buying, picking, or consuming mushrooms:
  1. Always buy good quality mushrooms from reliable shops or eat them at renowned restaurants. Opt out of shady places.
  2. Certain wild poisonous mushrooms resemble other wild non-poisonous varieties very closely. One needs real good knowledge of mushrooms in order to be able tell the two apart. Do not consume wild shrooms that are not cultivated without being sure of what you are eating. It could prove to be severely sickening or even FATAL.
  3. Always clean mushrooms thoroughly before consuming them - raw or cooked. It is not an option.
  4. The mushrooms listed below have been identified as edible, but there are certain conditions that come into play when it comes to the edibility of most of these species. Some are life-threatening when eaten raw, but delectable and safe when parboiled optimally. Some may give violent allergic reactions to certain people. So, find out everything you need to about a particular mushroom species you are about to try out. Better safe than sorry.
  5. Studies are still being conducted on a lot of these mushrooms listed below and a lot is yet to be discovered. If you are a regular mushroom-junkie, keep an eye out for new information on the various species.
Commercially cultivated fungi
Other edible wild fungi

Cantharellus cibarius

Cantharellus cibarius
(Common names:
Chanterelle,
Girolle,
Golden chanterelle)
Craterellus tubaeformis

Craterellus tubaeformis
(Common names:
Funnel Chanterelle,
Winter mushroom,
Yellowfoot)
Craterellus cornucopioides

Craterellus cornucopioides
(Common names:
Black chanterelle,
Black trumpet,
Horn of plenty,
Trompette de la Mort)
Clitocybe nuda

Clitocybe nuda
(Common names:
Blue stalk mushroom,
Wood blewit or blewitt)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
Never to be eaten raw; always after cooking. Brew in stews or sauté in butter.
Boletus edulis

Boletus edulis
(Common names:
Cep, King bolete,
Penny bun,
White mushroom (by Russians),
Wolf mushroom (in Albanian)
French name: Cèpe
German name: Steinpilz
Italian name: Fungo Porcino or Porcini
Grifola frondosa

Grifola frondosa
(Common names:
Hen-of-the-woods,
Ram's head, Sheep's head,
Signorina
Japanese name: Maitake)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
Gyromitra esculenta

Gyromitra esculenta
(Common name:
False morel)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
NEVER to be eaten raw; always after parboiling fresh mushrooms twice in a lot of water. Use fresh water in 3:1 ratio both times. May prove fatal if eaten raw.
Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus
(Common names:
Bearded Hedgehog Mushroom,
Bearded Tooth Fungus,
Bearded Tooth Mushroom,
Lion's Mane Mushroom,
Pom pom mushroom,
Satyr's Beard)
Hydnum repandum

Hydnum repandum
(Common names:
Hedgehog mushroom,
Sweet tooth fungus,
Wood Hedgehog,
Urchin of the woods)


Cortinarius caperatus
(Common name:
Gypsy mushroom)
Lactarius deliciosus

Lactarius deliciosus
(Common names:
Red pine mushroom,
Saffron milk cap)
Tricholoma matsutake

Tricholoma matsutake
(Common name:
Pine mushroom
Japanese name: Matsutake
Chinese name: Song rong)
Lentinula edodes

Lentinula edodes
(Common name:
Shiitake)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise caution.
Agaricus bisporus

Agaricus bisporus
(Common names: Button mushroom,
Champignon mushroom, Common mushroom,
Crimini mushroom, Cultivated mushroom,
Italian brown, Italian mushroom,
Portobello mushroom [once mature],
Roman brown mushroom,
Swiss brown mushroom,
Table mushroom, White mushroom)
Volvariella volvacea

Volvariella volvacea
(Common name:
Paddy straw mushroom,
Straw mushroom
Chinese name: Cǎogū
Filipino name: Kabuteng saging
Thai name: Hed fang
Vietnamese name: Nấm rơm)
Flammulina velutipes

Flammulina velutipes
(Common names:
Enokidake, Enokitake,
Golden needle mushroom)
Ganoderma lucidum

Ganoderma lucidum
(Japanese name: Reishi
Pinyin name: Língzhī
Vietnamese: Linh chi)
Amanita caesarea

Amanita caesarea
(Common name:
Caesar's Mushroom)
Armillaria mellea

Armillaria mellea
(Common name:
Honey fungus)
Boletus badius

Boletus badius
(Common name:
Bay bolete)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
Calvatia gigantea

Calvatia gigantea
(Common name:
Giant puffball)
Clavariaceae

Clavariaceae
(Common names:
Antler fungi, Finger fungi,
Spaghetti mushroom,
Worm mold)
Clavulinaceae

Clavulinaceae
Coprinus comatus

Coprinus comatus
(Common names:
Lawyer's wig, Shaggy ink cap,
Shaggy mane)
Should be consumed fresh, BEFORE the gills turn black and NEVER alongside alcohol.
Fistulina hepatica

Fistulina hepatica
(Common names:
Beefsteak fungus,
Beefsteak polypore,
Ox tongue)
Laetiporus sulphureus

Laetiporus sulphureus
(Common names:
Chicken-of-the-woods,
chicken polypore,
Sulphur polypore,
Sulphur shelf)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
Leccinum aurantiacum

Leccinum aurantiacum
(Common name:
Red-capped scaber stalk)
Leccinum scabrum

Leccinum scabrum
(Common name:
Birch bolete)
Lepiota procera

Lepiota procera
Macrolepiota procera

Macrolepiota procera
(Common name:
Parasol mushroom)
Tricholoma terreum

Tricholoma terreum
(Common names:
Dirty tricholoma,
Gray knight)
To be eaten fresh, within 2 days of harvesting.
Suillus granulatus

Suillus granulatus
(Common names:
Granulated bolete,
Weeping bolete)
Discard tubes BEFORE cooking.
Suillus luteus

Suillus luteus
(Common names:
Slippery Jack,
Sticky bun)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
Discard tubes and glutinous cuticle BEFORE cooking.
Pleurotus ostreatus

Pleurotus ostreatus
(Common names:
Gray oyster mushroom,
Oyster mushroom,
Oyster shelf,
Tree oyster mushroom
Chinese name: Píng gū
Irani name: Sadafi
Japanese name: Hiratake
Malayalam: Chippikkoon
Vietnamese name: Nấm sò)
Pleurotus eryngii

Pleurotus eryngii
(Common names:
Boletus of the steppes,
French horn mushroom, Trumpet royale
King oyster mushroom,
King trumpet mushroom,
Italian name: Cardoncello
Japanese name: Eringi
Korean name: Saesongi peoseot
Chinese name: xìng bào gū/cì qín gū/cì qín cè ěr)
Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria
(Common names:
Fly agaric,
Fly amanita)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
Never to be eaten raw; always after finely dicing or thinly slicing mushrooms and then parboiling in a lot of water.
Coprinopsis atramentaria

Coprinopsis atramentaria
(Common names:
Common ink cap,
Inky cap)
Never to be consumed along with alcohol. Will prove to be highly poisonous otherwise.
Auricularia auricula-judae

Auricularia auricula-judae
(Common names:
Jelly ear
Jew's ear)
Needs to be washed thoroughly before use.
Hypsizygus tessellatus

Hypsizygus tessellatus
Two varieties are called
I. Buna-shimeji
(Common names:
Brown Beech Mushroom,
Beech Mushroom,
BeechBrown Clamshell Mushroom)
II. Bunapi-shimeji
(Common names:
White Beech Mushroom,
White Clamshell Mushroom)
Tricholoma equestre

Tricholoma equestre
OR
Tricholoma flavovirens
(Common names:
Man on horseback, Yellow knight
French name: Canari
German name: Grünling
Polish name: Gąska zielonka)
Consumption of this mushroom - more than thrice in a week - may lead to severe poisoning.
Polyporus squamosus

Polyporus squamosus
(Common names:
Dryad's saddle,
Pheasant's back mushroom)
Sparassis crispa

Sparassis crispa
(Common name:
Cauliflower mushroom)
Agaricus campestris

Agaricus campestris
(Common names:
Field mushroom,
Meadow mushroom)

Russula cyanoxantha

Russula cyanoxantha
(Common name:
Charcoal burner)
Russula emetica

Russula emetica
(Common names:
Emetic russula,
The sickener,
Vomiting russula)
Never to be eaten raw; always after parboiling in a lot of water. Consumption not recommended these days.
Russula virescens

Russula virescens
(Common names:
Green-cracking Russula,
Green brittlegill,
Quilted green Russula)
Russula xerampelina

Russula xerampelina
(Common names:
Crab brittlegill,
Shrimp mushroom)

Morchella

Morchella
(Common name:
Morels)
Extreme caution must be exercised while collecting this variety of mushrooms so as to avoid the accidental collection of poisonous early false morels or Verpa bohemica. Even though eaten in some parts of the world, Verpa bohemica is known to cause poisoning when eaten excessively.
Morchella conica

Morchella conica var. deliciosa
(Common names:
Black morel)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.
Morchella esculenta

Morchella esculenta var. rotunda
(Common names:
Common morel, Morel,
Morel mushroom, Sponge morel,
True morel, Yellow morel)
May cause allergic reactions. Exercise extreme caution.

Tuber

Tuber
(Common name:
Truffle)
The edible varieties that are widely cultivated as follows:
Burgundy truffle

Tuber uncinatum
(Common names:
Burgundy truffle)
Tuber magnatum

Tuber magnatum
(Common name:
Piemont white truffle)
Terfezia
(Common name: Desert truffle)
Tuber indicum
(Common name: Chinese black truffle)
Tuber melanosporum
(Common name: Périgord truffle)
Tuber borchii
Tuber brumale
Tuber mesentericum
(Common name: The Bagnoli truffle)
Tuber aestivum
(Common name: Summer or St. Jean truffle)

Chroogomphus rutilus (Common names: Pine-spikes, spike-caps, Brown slimecap, Copper spike)
Cortinarius variicolor
Hygrophorus chrysodon
Lactarius salmonicolor
Lactarius subdulcis (Common name: Mild milkcap)
Lactarius volemus (Common name: Voluminous-latex milky, Weeping milk cap)
Laccocephalum mylittae (Common name: Blackfellow's bread, Native bread)
Rhizopogon luteolus
Suillus bovinus
Suillus tomentosus (Common name: Blue-staining Slippery Jack, Poor Man's Slippery Jack, Woolly-capped Suillus)